There are currently more advanced, newer medications that are preferred over standard chemotherapy drugs in the treatment of multiple myeloma. According to the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation, these drugs–proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulating agents–are known as novel agents. These medications have quickly become the standard for multiple myeloma treatment.
Understanding How Proteasome Inhibitors Work
Proteasome inhibitors function by hindering the action proteasomes (a type of enzyme) whose main responsibility entails breaking down proteins in both normal and myeloma cells. When the action of proteasomes is blocked, this leads to the accumulation of proteins that impede the growth of cancer cells. This impediment provided by a proteasome inhibitor ultimately results in the destruction of myeloma cells.
Common Proteasome Inhibitors
under the brand name (produced by Takeda Oncology), was the first medication in the class of proteasome inhibitors that got approved by the FDA for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Taken intravenously, works especially well when taken in conjunction with immunomodulatory agents. Following the approval of , the FDA also approved the use of and Ninlaro over the span of a few years.
() has been found to be particularly effective in the treatment of multiple myeloma patients with kidney issues. Additionally, individuals with multiple myeloma who initially went into remission following a previous line of therapy or a stem cell transplant may also be put on as a form of maintenance treatment.
The most common side effects associated with are fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, constipation, and a decrease in blood cell counts. In most cases, causes a decrease in blood platelet and white blood cell counts.
() is also linked to a higher risk of neuropathy (nerve damage) that can cause tingling or numbing sensations in a patient’s hands and feet, which may also get painful at times. This medication also increases the risk of shingles, so as a precautionary measure, doctors may prescribe a type of antiviral to patients to lower their risk of shingles.
Featured Image: DepositPhotos@sciencepicsPosted on May 22, 2023