4 Types of Multiple Sclerosis and Treatment Options

Multiple sclerosis — more popularly known as MS — is an unpredictable and often disabling disease affecting the central nervous system by disrupting the flow of blood between the brain and the body and within the brain itself.

Clinically isolated syndrome is the first neurologic symptom patients experience that is suggestive of MS. It usually lasts for roughly 24 hours with signs and symptoms indicative of a single lesion-monofocal or multifocal for many lesions within the central nervous system.

There are 4 types of MS and they are named according to the point the disease acts on the body over time.

Types of MS

  • Relapsing remitting MS- RRMS: It is the most common type of MS with 85 percent of affected people diagnosed with it. When new symptoms appear people with RRMS experience temporary relapses, flare ups and exacerbations.
  • Secondary progressive MS- SPMS: In this type of MS symptoms worsen over time with or without experiencing relapses and remissions. Most people diagnosed with RRMS eventually develop SPMS.
  • Primary progressive MS-PPMS: It is the rarest type of MS occurring in about 10 percent of diagnosed people. People with PPMS experience slowly worsening symptoms with no remissions and relapses.
  • Progressively relapsing MS-PRMS: It is the rarest type of MS and affects about 5 percent of MS patients. It worsens steadily over time with acute relapses and no remissions with or without recovery.

The importance of early treatment

Treatment should be sought immediately one is diagnosed with MS. According to research carried out, MS causes more damage in its first year than later on.

MS treatment options

The treatment available currently decreases the frequency of relapses and delays disease progression. Some treatments are administered either by a sub-cutaneous injection or an intra muscular injection while others are given via infusion or orally.

  • Beta s: This is an injectable form of treatment used to treat relapsing remitting MS. Some beta s are used during the first clinical episode indicative of MS via an MRI test. Dosing varies depending on whether the medication is intra muscular or subcutaneous.
  • : It is a drug used to treat remitting relapsing MS administered via sub cutaneous injections. It is also given to patients who have exhibited the first clinical episodes with MRI findings consistent of MS.
  • Flingolimod: It is an oral capsule given once daily used to treat relapsing forms of MS to reduce the clinical exacerbations and to delay the accumulation of physical disability.
  • Teriflumonide: It is also an oral capsule given once a day to treat relapsing forms of MS.
  • : It is a twice daily oral capsule used to treat patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis.
  • : It is a chemotherapeutic drug given to deal with worsening relapsing remitting MS and is used to reduce frequency of clinical exacerbations and the formation of physical disability. It is administered intravenously once every three months.
  • Natalizumab: It is an intravenous medication given to patients with rapidly progressing MS or those with high disease activity despite the use of other forms of therapy. It is given once every four weeks.

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Posted on May 22, 2023