Psychotherapy involves treating troublesome habits and mental disorders such as schizophrenia and depression by talking to a psychiatrist, trained mental health provider or a trusted family member and in some cases it may involve other methods other than talking such as drama, movement and art.
During this process, one is able to discuss feelings, moods, behaviors and thoughts that they have about themselves as well as towards other people hence helping the patients to take control of their lives and cope better with difficult situations.
Psychotherapy is classified into several types depending on the situation of each patient. Different approaches are applied for each type as highlighted below in this article.
- Adlerian Therapy
Adlerian therapy considers birth order as very important in understanding a person’s current personality. This therapy is both goal and human oriented since it assumes that humans are socially motivated and their behavior is directed towards a goal.
It emphasizes on community feelings and social interest which are viewed as a sign of mental health. It takes the approach of investigating a client’s lifestyle and identifying misdirected goals. Clients are then reeducated with the hope of increasing their sense of belonging and having a higher level of social interest.
- Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy is based on the view that humans can think both rationally and irrationally and that they are prone to negative thought such as self-blame, repetitive mistakes and self-destruction as well as to positive thoughts such as love, happiness and growth. Internalizing negative thoughts results in the disturbance of human emotions.
Cognitive-behavioral therapists help patients replace irrational thoughts with constructive thinking through cognitive restructuring which leads to self-improvement.
- Behavioral Therapy
This type of therapy deals with present life problems rather than the past issuesand relies heavily on scientific methods. It views humans as producers and products of their surrounding environment. A therapist treats the patients by identifying a problem and suggesting solutions to the problems. This therapy aims at increasing a person’s ability to respond and adopt to their environment.
- Existential Therapy
Existential therapy assumes human freedom is accompanied with corresponding actions and choices. It seeks to balance awareness of a person’s tragedies and limitations with that of potentials and opportunities. A therapist will help a patient especially one who is transitioning from one stage to another in their life as well as those discovering certain meanings in their lives to becomes better and self-aware in order to be able to interact and connect with the world.
- Gestalt Therapy
This approach focuses on self-awareness which is a key to personal growth that is made possible through relationships with others and insight. Gestalt therapy recognize that negative thought patterns and behavior can block self-awareness making a person to feel unhappy. Patients are helped to become self-sufficient through this therapy, by making them aware of their both internal and external realities.
- Reality Therapy
This therapy is based on the choice theory which states that individuals have five inherent needs; freedom, achievement, love, survival and fun. A reality therapist helps the patients to prioritize and uncover their needs by highly emphasizing on personal control.
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